Bacterial prostatitis - symptoms, treatment, prevention

what is bacterial prostatitis

Inflammation in the prostate gland is one of the most common urological problems in men of any age. Bacteria and viruses predominate among the causes of inflammation in the prostate.

What is bacterial prostatitis?

Currently, several forms of bacterial prostatitis are distinguished in the classification:

  • Acute inflammation of the prostate.The main characteristic of the disease is the severity of clinical manifestations and complaints from the patient, as well as deviations in laboratory tests. But despite the acute form, the prognosis is favorable. In most cases, full recovery is possible. Of course, only with correct diagnosis and treatment. And with prevention, the disease may no longer remind of itself.
  • Subacute form.It occurs when, against the background of manifestations of an acute illness, the patient resorts to self-medication, or initially does not completely complete the prescribed medication course. In certain situations, this may be an initially incorrect treatment tactic. As a result, a significant part of the symptoms gradually disappears, but some manifestations (urination disorders, deterioration of sexual function, discomfort in the genital area) may persist and cause inconvenience. If not taken on time, the disease becomes chronic with frequent exacerbations. Depending on the characteristics of the infection, the initial development of a subacute form of the disease is also possible.
  • Chronic type of disease.Almost always, chronic prostatitis is a neglected, untreated or improperly treated disease. Most of the symptoms constantly bring tangible discomfort. Any unfavorable conditions quickly cause an exacerbation with a deterioration in the condition.

Acute bacterial prostatitis

The disease always begins acutely and develops rapidly. Initially, a general temperature reaction occurs, which often reaches values above 38. 5 degrees. Almost immediately, dysuric disorders occur (frequent, difficult urination in small portions, imperative (sudden) urge to urinate, weakening of the urine stream, and sometimes until complete retention of urination).

A very important symptom is pain in the perineum, in the groin, in the scrotum, in the lower abdomen. If initially pain accompanies only the process of urination, then after a while it can annoy constantly, including at rest. In addition to pain manifestations, the patient has a decrease in sexual desire and a deterioration in erection.

It is with these signs of bacterial prostatitis that the patient comes to a specialist urologist. The doctor orders blood and urine tests, and in most cases this may be enough. In the absence of severe pain, prostate secretion can be taken for microscopic examination.

In the acute form of the disease, a characteristic manifestation will be severe pain during a digital examination. At the same time, prostate massage is not performed because of the risk of provoking the spread of infection.

The urologist makes a diagnosis on the basis of laboratory tests and patient complaints. Then he prescribes treatment, which usually includes:

  • Antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum drugs. If there is data on the sensitivity of microorganisms, it is possible to select more effective antibiotics for the patient.
  • Painkillers can be prescribed in the form of tablet forms and in the form of rectal suppositories for topical use. With a strong pain syndrome, they are often combined.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve the outflow of urine.
  • Topical preparations aimed at activating resistance mechanisms. One of the most prescribed are preparations with an extract from the tissues of the prostate gland, which stimulate local immunity and resistance, as they contain organotropic biologically active molecules.

This list of therapeutic measures, followed by adherence to medical prescriptions and prevention, guarantee a complete recovery.

Subacute inflammation of the prostate

The subacute form at the initial stage does not differ from the acute one. However, it is formed due to incomplete or interrupted treatment. At the same time, the patient's vigilance is lulled by the fact that the most acute symptoms disappear, such as fever, which most often completely disappears. But other symptoms - dysuric disorders, disturbances in the intimate sphere, pain or discomfort in everyday life - remain, albeit with minimal manifestations. Gradually, the patient gets used to not paying attention to them.

A constant sluggish process gradually turns into a chronic one. Very often, any weakening of the immune system leads to an exacerbation of the process with the development of the clinical picture. The treatment of subacute prostatitis is based on:

  • Antibiotic therapy with the obligatory determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms.
  • Painkillers, and most often with a long period of action.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve the outflow of urine. In this case, longer courses are needed, since some of the changes become difficult to reverse.
  • Topical preparations with activation of local immune and organotropic mechanisms of resistance. One of the most commonly prescribed are preparations containing an extract of prostate tissue.

It is extremely important for subacute prostatitis to complete the course of treatment and conscientiously follow all the necessary recommendations. In this case, there is a chance to cure the disease and prevent its transition to a chronic form, which will be impossible to get rid of.

Chronic prostatitis

This clinical form of the disease can proceed in different ways. With an exacerbation, the clinical picture becomes similar to an acute form of inflammation of the prostate gland, and outside the exacerbation, minimally pronounced symptoms are constantly present.

Leading signs of bacterial prostatitis in remission:

  • Dysuric disorders. Most often they are represented by a decrease in the speed of the urinary stream in the form of a sluggish weakened jet. There is no feeling of complete emptying of the bladder. Frequent urge to urinate in small portions, especially at night, is characteristic - this symptom is called nocturia.
  • Violations of the intimate sphere. In this case, there is discomfort during intercourse, and pain during ejaculation may also be observed. An important sign of the disease is a decrease in the quality of erection, as well as a decrease in the ability to conceive, up to complete infertility.
  • Chronic pain syndrome. It is constantly present, reducing the quality of life of a man and negatively affecting his activity and ability to work. At the same time, factors such as hypothermia, physical activity, stress often increase pain.

With an exacerbation of a chronic disease, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis does not differ from the treatment of acute or subacute forms:

  • Antibiotic therapy with mandatory determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms that cause inflammation.
  • Painkillers, and most often with a long period of action.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve the outflow of urine. Often, a long-term intake in sufficiently large dosages is needed, since the existing changes are virtually irreversible and are permanent. The main task in this case is to reduce the severity of dysuric phenomena.
  • Medicines for bacterial prostatitis of local action with an organotropic and organoprotective mechanism of resistance. One of the most prescribed drugs are products with an extract from the tissues of the prostate gland.

Proper prevention of any form of bacterial prostatitis

At the moment, experts recognize three main preventive areas that help initially reduce the risk of the disease, and in its chronic forms, reduce the frequency of exacerbations and their severity. This is achieved by reducing the influence of risk factors, such as:

  • Stagnation of blood circulation in the tissues of the gland with irregular sexual activity;
  • Frequent change of partners during unprotected intercourse;
  • A long break in sexual life, or excessive, debilitating sexual activity;
  • Mechanical rough stimulation of the urethra, especially dangerous due to microtraumatization and direct bacterial infection;
  • General and local hypothermia;
  • Low physical activity and predominantly sedentary lifestyle;
  • Physical exhaustion, exhausting physical activity;
  • Traumatization of the genital organs.

Primary preventionaimed at preventing the occurrence of disease. An important role here is given to ensuring personal and intimate hygiene, normalization of physical and sexual activity, avoiding stressful situations and hypothermia of the perineum.

Secondary preventionaimed at the most complete cure of the infectious process. The best result is a complete recovery. The more correctly the treatment is chosen and the more responsible the man is to fulfill the doctor's prescriptions, the higher the probability of a complete recovery.

Tertiary preventionbacterial prostatitis is necessary in situations where the disease has already acquired a chronic form. Its main goal is to prevent the occurrence of exacerbations of the disease.

Not always all of the above preventive measures can provide full protection against exacerbation. Recently, drugs that raise the level of local immunity have appeared and have been actively used. This increases the resistance of prostate tissue. Some of the preparations are of plant origin. These act due to plant analogues of hormonal compounds. However, the degree of effectiveness of these funds is still being investigated and not fully proven.

Preparations based on tissue extracts of animals have a more substantial evidence base. Organic compounds that are completely suitable for the human body. Among them, the most commonly prescribed are suppositories and ampoules from the extract of bovine prostate tissue. They have a proven level of clinical effectiveness in reducing the risks of negative effects on the prostate. When using these funds, there is an increase in the protective reserves of the gland itself. In addition, resistance increases, and the prostate is provided with the necessary biologically active molecules. In this way, reinforcement is achieved at the "point of minimum resistance".